Wed 17 Jan 2018 21:56:29


British Railway Steam Locomotive

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Note: To Obtain Consistency in the Steam System, Shed Codes used are those Registered at Nationalisation on 1st January 1948
2nd Grouping Number
1st Grouping Numbersr 2295
2nd Pre Grouping Number
1st Pre Grouping Numberlbsc 295
Works/Lot Number
Class CodeD1-A
DesignerStroudley W
BuilderBrighton Works (SR/British Railways)
1948 Shed
Last Shed73E Faversham
Disposal detailsEastleigh Works (B.R.)
DisposalCut Up
Disposal Date31/08/1937

Class Information

The LB&SCR D1 class were powerful 0-4-2 suburban passenger tank locomotives, designed by William Stroudley of the London Brighton and South Coast Railway in 1873. They were originally known as "D-tanks" but later reclassified as class D1. A much "stronger" class that was, like the Terriers, destined to have a long and successful career. Pure Stroudley through and through, the locomotives were ideal for both suburban and country traffic and were quite at home on a fast mainline service - provided there was time for a water stop or two. Members of this very successful class survived in service until 1951. This famous class of D-Tanks were numerically the largest class that the LBSCR possessed and were built as a standard passenger tank engine for heavy suburban and secondary main line use.

The D1 class were Stroudley's second tank engine class, intended for heavier tasks than could be undertaken by his A1 class "Terriers" which had been introduced in 1872. They had larger 5' 6" coupled wheels and a 140 psi (970 kPa) boiler pressure. Built over thirteen years, the first, "Sydenham",
appropriately bearing the number '1', appeared in November 1873 whilst the last, the 125th, was not built until December 1886. Between November 1873 and
March 1887, 125 locomotives of the class were built, 90 of which at Brighton railway works and the remainder by Neilson & Co. After 1883, new locomotives were given boilers with 150 psi (1,000 kPa) pressure, and in 1892 following Stroudley's death, the boiler pressure for replacement boilers was raised to 160 psi (1,100 kPa). Some of the class were fitted with Stroudley's "speed recorder" which was, quite simply, a fan driven by a driving wheel that forced a jet of air into a tubular water container forcing the water to rise as the speed built up. Simple but effective, it was more of an "indicator" than a "recorder".

For twenty years the class were the mainstay of the LB&SCR outer suburban services, until gradually replaced by R.J. Billinton's D3 class 0-4-4 tank engines in the mid 1890s. Thereafter they were used on a variety of secondary passenger, and occasionally freight services throughout the railway. The first locomotive was withdrawn in December 1903, but many of the locomotives were still in good condition and popular with the engine crews. When he took over at Brighton, Douglas Earle Marsh therefore sought to rebuild six examples in 1910 replacing the 150 lb boilers with larger 170 lb ones and cylinders. In the event, only one locomotive, ex-"Carlshalton" of June 1873 (who carried no less than five numbers in LBSCR days) number 79A, was rebuilt. This locomotive was known as D1X class, but although it was more powerful than the originals, it was not much of a success and found to be unsteady at speed and so no further
rebuilds were authorised. Considered unsteady at anything over 45 mph, the D1x worked her last years on the 'Cuckoo Line' between Eastbourne and Mayfield.

Of the other five new boilers, one was used to rebuild E1 class no. 89 in 1911, and the other four were put to stationary use at various places on the LBSCR system.

No. 627 was the first of the class to be converted for working motor trains, oil-fired and with two Marsh control-trailer coaches she handled the traffic on the Epsom Downs branch most capably on all but big race meeting days. After being converted she carried the initials 'L & B' in large, some called them vulgar, letters on her tank sides.

The original series of Brighton-built locomotives had wooden brake blocks, but from the last of this series (No. 268 "Baynards") onwards, iron blocks were fitted. One odd thing to note about the Nielson engines was that the first was the last. Brighton works provided Nielsons with half a set of motion which they used in the first locomotive, No. 233 "Handcross", which was then used as a 'pattern engine', eventually leaving the works in March 1883, some four months after the penultimate locomotive.

There were 84 D1 and D1X locomotives surviving in December 1922 at the grouping of the railways of southern England to form the Southern Railway. The class continued to find useful work on secondary services throughout the new railway, often in preference to far newer locomotives. During the Second World War six surviving examples were loaned to the London Midland and Scottish Railway and served in the north of Scotland. Nine examples were fitted with water pumps and firefighting equipment and were stationed at the major motive power depots in London to deal with incendiary bomb attacks.

As time progressed virtually all were re-boilered by either RJ Billinton or, later, Marsh who raised the pressure to 170 lb. Coal rails were fitted to increase coal capacity to 2 tons 15 cwt. During Southern Railway days four of the class had their bunkers cut down and side tank capacity reduced so that
they could work the Lyme Regis branch, though the SR quickly learned (as Dugald Drummond had many years earlier) that you couldn't run rigid framed engines on that line! During the early 1940s engines 2215, 2220 2239, 2244, 2252, 2253, 2255, 2260 and 2357 were equipped for use as fire engines at big depots, able to throw four jets of water at a rate of a ton a minute. Also during WWII several D1s were sent to Scotland for branchline and shunting work resulting in the Highland Railway line seeing Stroudley locomotives at work some seven decades after the man himself had left Inverness for the south.

Seventeen members of the class survived the nationalisation of the Southern Railway to form British Railways in January 1948 but many of these had been in storage for several years. The last surviving example in B.R. service was withdrawn from Nine Elms in December 1951 and no examples have been preserved.

In 1947 the Whittingham Hospital Railway in Lancashire acquired number 2357 from the Southern Railway at a cost of 750. It was renamed James Fryers in honour of the Chairman of the Hospital Management Committee. Serious boiler defects in 1956 curtailed its working career and the engine was scrapped that year when it proved beyond economic repair. At that time, it was the sole surviving member of its class.

Various of the class were the subject of accidents over the years, the most serious being on the 'Cuckoo Line' in 1897 when the Driver was killed, which
raised questions about the use of front coupled locomotives. However, it was considered that the true cause of the accidents was the state of the permanent way, which left a lot to be desired around the turn of the century.

The D1 class had a lasting influence on a number of locomotive classes designed by Stroudley himself, and his two assistants Robert Billinton and Dugald Drummond. Stroudley produced a tender locomotive version of the design for secondary passenger duties which was later classified D2, and then went on to build express passenger versions of the 'Richmond' and B1 classes. Likewise, Billinton extended the design to create his D3 passenger tanks. During the 1870s Drummond built six 0-4-2 tank locomotives that were almost identical for the North British Railway after 1875. He too extended the design to produce the first of his several successful 0-4-4T designs for the North British and Caledonian Railway. Durmmond's successful LSWR M7 class is also a direct descendant of the D1 class.

The first loco withdrawn by BR was 32286 in July 1948 from Horsham shed. The last loco withdrawn was 32359 in July 1950 from Dover shed.

None are preserved.

Technical Details

Power type : Steam
Designer : William Stroudley
Introduced : November 1873
Builder : Brighton works (90), Neilson & Co. (35)
Build date : 18731887
Total produced : 125
Configuration : 0-4-2T
UIC classification : B1
Gauge : 4 ft 8 in (1,435 mm)
Driver Wheel diameter : 5 ft 6 ins (1.676 m)
Trailing wheel diameter : 4 ft 6 ins (1.372 m)
Locomotive weight : 43 tons 10 cwt (38.76 t)
Fuel type : Coal
Coal Capacity : 1 tons 10 cwt
Water Capacity : 860 gallons
Boiler pressure : 170 lb sq in (0.97 MPa)
Cylinders : Two, inside
Cylinder size : 17 in 24 in (432 mm 610 mm)
Valve Gear : Stephenson (slide valves)
Tractive effort : 15,185 lbf (68 kN)
Career : LB&SCR, Southern Railway, British Railways
Class : LBSC: D1
Power class : BR; 0P
First run : 1873
Withdrawn : 190350

(a) Modified 1947 with oil pump apparatus.

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